The Basics of Chemistry

The study of identifying the substance found in a matter is called chemistry. Chemistry shows how each substance works and contributes to all the other substances found in matter. Studying chemistry is very helpful for you, since we use chemistry all the time. We will be able to understand why or how something happens, like why do you become alert after having your cup of coffee. Getting help with chemistry will allow you to understand most science branches as well. Chemistry allows you to learn how to live in harmony with the world. Here are the basic topics of Chemistry that you need to learn:

Acid Base Chemistry

Acid base chemistry is a study that focuses on different acids and bases. You will be able to study the components of a substance that has to do with water. Acid base chemistry also focuses on the study of Ph value, of the acidity and basicity of a substance. There are also different meanings of bases and acids.

You will be able to learn the Lewis Theory, Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowery in acid base chemistry. The acid base character, acid base titrations and anything that has to do with salt will be discussed on acid base chemistry topics.

Atomic Structure

You will be studying what atomic structure is all about. The smallest building block of matter is called an atom. Protons, neutrons and electrons are what makes up an atom. With the atomic structure topic, you will be learning the introduction to the periodic table of elements where you will have to memorize the symbol of each element. The periodic table consists of 8 different groups. To understand how atoms work, you will need to understand how atoms charge, which will be discussed in this topic. You will be able to understand quantum numbers and atomic numbers. The configuration of electrons will be determined in the study of the atomic structure.

Periodic Table

The periodic table, as introduced in the atomic structure topic, will be discussed further. The periodic table topic will focus on the configuration of electrons. In here, the concept of different periodic trends such as electronegativity, electron affinity, ionization energy, radii, electron configurations and oxidation numbers will be discussed.  You will learn how to determine the complete configurations of elements.

Lewis Structures And Diagram

The covalent structure of an ion or molecule is used to represent the Lewis structure while the Lewis diagram represents the unpaired and paired valence electrons. The topic talks about different Lewis structures, such as electron-rich compound, resonance structure, polyatomic ions and electron-poor compound.

Chemical Reactions

The changing process of at least one substance is called a chemical reaction. In this topic, you will be discussing chemical reactions using a chemical equation where the substances produced in a chemical reaction are called product while the changed substances are called reactants. There are different chemical reactions that could happen, such as classifying reactions, non redox reaction and redox reaction.

Stoichiometry

Stoichiometry is also known as chemistry math. This is used to calculate moles, percents and masses of a chemical reaction. With this topic, you will be able to learn how to make and calculate chemical equations. Using the equation, you will be able to tell how many moles are there in products and reactants.  In this topic, using the equation, you will be able to learn density, concentration of solutions , molecular and empirical formula, composition of a percent, limiting reagents and balancing chemical equations.

Chemical  Nomenclature

Naming of compounds is also a term used for chemical nomenclature. This will help you to study the different conventions and rules. The oxidation and reaction is an important part of chemistry that you should learn. You will be able to form ionic compounds if you learn about oxidation. Once you have learned how ionic compounds are formed, then you will be able to name them which you will also learn in chemical nomenclature topic. You will be able to learn atomic structures within this topic as well. Naming different compounds will be learned too, such as molecular compounds, inorganic acids, binary molecular compounds and compounds.

Though it may sound complex, chemistry is really fun to study. Understanding how things work around us through chemistry will amaze you in many ways. You can easily get help with chemistry if you find some things to be confusing.

Why Is an Internship So Important for Student That Has Just Graduated?

The further you make it in the school year, the closer you get to graduation. Graduation holds a key significance for a few major key reasons. One of them is your finally unleashed in to the world with your new degree and ready to put it to good use. However, finding a job right away isn’t always easy and that’s where internships come in to play. Internships come in both paid and unpaid form depending on the company or organization. Regardless, they’re a great way to get your foot in the door and working towards finding other jobs in the field of study you chose.

What makes internships so important to fresh graduates?

Getting to work for an internship gives you a firsthand experience on what to expect when you’re fully working in that career field. It also gives valuable experience to take with you in life and other jobs. In many jobs, once you apply they expect you already to have a grasp on how they work and operate which of course you’ll only gain from working an internship. Without that, you’re looking at a lot of rejection from many companies.

Even if you struggle for a while to find a job pertaining to your major, having an internship on your resume looks really good. However, you want to make sure that when you place the experience of an internship on your resume it pertains to your area of study that you took while still in college. To have a random internship on your resume’s that have nothing to do with your field of study is pointless and doesn’t help you at all.

Professional Portfolio

Many people gain a degree in a field they believe is something they’d like to do the rest of their life, without having the actual experience to back it. Later on they wind up returning to school to head in another direction which may cost them more money down the road. An internship allows you a firsthand experience at what to expect and what it’ll feel like to work in the field of study you choose. Next, it allows you to build a professional portfolio which can really benefit you. In fact, you’ll get to meet people that if things turn out well enough, you can use them as connections to wind up where you want to be or help you to land a job if not give a good recommendation on your behalf.

Finally, it’s a great way to land a job in the job you’re looking for. In many cases, companies offer internships with the intentions of hiring the student on full time. While the process of working through an internship may be a lengthy one, it can definitely pay off in the end when you wind up working for the company you intended to or one in which you may have been interested working for outside of the internship later on.

How To Become A Career Coach

Job Profile Of A Career Coach

The duties of a career coach include assisting people in their selection of the right job opportunities and managing their careers. You could either be a career management coach or a career marketing coach. The latter is responsible for building influential contacts, posting resumes and suggesting ways to secure high placement. The main aim as a coach is to market the client effectively in the career market.

Investment

Before you establish your business, you need to consider the costs that you will have to incur as a career coach. Initially, you will be required to make major investments such as website hosting to gain publicity, a PC for processing relevant information and storing your client’s data and other promotional and advertising material.

Equipment Required

In addition to a personal computer with the necessary programming software, you also need to have complete access to the Internet, so that you can research conveniently. Besides this, a telephone, printer and fax machine is also helpful.

Financial Resources

If you do not have the required capital for the initial investment, you can easily get financing from numerous sources. Business loans from banks and governments should be given highest priority. There are other business organizations as well that could help you financially and aid you in setting up your own business as a career coach by providing you with start up loans.

Getting loans from self-employment programs sponsored by the government is also a good idea. Applying for loans from business capitalists and angel investors is another option available, if you fall short of the necessary finances. However, keep in mind that they both charge a high rate of interest.

Offering Your Services For A Fee

In today’s fast paced and competitive world, you have to be careful about how you price your services. You need to effectively price your competent services or else the business may not perform as anticipated.

Scope Of Income

Irrespective of whether you are a career management coach or a career marketing coach, established career coaches charge on an hourly basis. The average billing rate prevailing in the industry currently is $100 per hour.

Marketing Strategies

You can choose from a variety of methods to effectively promote your business, depending on your budget and need. Advertising in the newspapers is the most effective marketing strategy. You could even post ads or distribute pamphlets in colleges and other educational organizations. Circulate your business cards at social gatherings and events. Promoting career coaching by writing relevant articles in newspapers and on the Internet, featuring ideas and suggestions for people who encounter problems in their careers are other great options.

Huge Market

The main targets for career coaching are youngsters and people who are unable to identify the right job opportunities. Many new graduates and other people find themselves confused or at crossroads in their careers due to several reasons. People tend to make wrong career decisions when they are influenced negatively by their peers or sometimes out of dire financial need. As a career coach, you will be serving this growing market.

Education in South Africa: How It Works, and How It’s Struggling

It’s January, and that means the start of a new school year in South Africa. In less than a week, students (or learners, as they’re called in South Africa) and teachers will fill classrooms, hoping to embark on a new year of learning, enlightenment, and growth. It’s a good time for students to ride the momentum gained with last year’s record-breaking high school pass rate. For those of us in the United States, Canada, and other Western countries, it’s a good time to learn about the educational experiences that our young South African friends will have this year.

Primary education is mandatory in South Africa. According to the country’s Constitution, South Africa has an obligation to make education available and accessible. All South Africans have the right to a basic education, including adult basic education and further education.

School in South Africa begins in grade 0, or grade R. It’s the equivalent of our kindergarten, a time of school preparation and early childhood socialization. Grades 0 to 9 make up General Education and Training, followed by Further Education and Training (FET) from grades 10 to 12. Students either stay in high school during this time, or enter more specialized FET institutions with an emphasis on career-oriented education and training. After passing the nationally-administered Senior Certificate Examination, or “matric,” some students will continue their education at the tertiary level, working towards degrees up to the doctoral level. Over a million students are enrolled in South Africa’s 24 state-funded colleges and universities.

With a solid educational structure in place, South Africa continues the long and arduous process of overcoming the discriminatory legacy left behind by 40 years of apartheid education. Under that system, white South African children received a quality schooling virtually for free. Black students, on the other hand, had access only to “Bantu education”, a system based on the unjust philosophy that there was no place in South African society for black Africans “above certain forms of labor” (a quote attributed to HF Verwoerd, the architect of the Bantu Education Act of 1953). In the 1970s, government spending on black education was one-tenth of spending on whites. By the 1980s, teacher to pupil ratios in primary schools averaged 1:18 in white schools and 1:39 in black schools. Even the standards for education were different between black and while schools: while 96 percent of all teachers in white schools had teaching certificates, only 15 percent of teachers in black schools were certified. Not surprisingly during apartheid, high school graduation rates for black students were less than half the rate for whites.

Bantu education was abolished with the end of apartheid in 1994. Nevertheless, South Africa continues to struggle with inequality and educational disparities. Seventeen years after the end of apartheid, the vast majority of poor black children are denied a quality education at severely deprived public schools. Over three-quarters of these schools do not have libraries, and even more do not have a computer. Around 90 percent of public schools have no science laboratory, and more than half of all pupils either have no text books or have to share them. Over a quarter of public schools do not even having running water.

More affluent South Africans (read: White South Africans, along with a small but growing contingent from the black middle class) can afford to send their children to so-called former “Model C” schools, publicly funded schools that were previously allowed only for white students. These schools charge extra school fees to supplement teachers’ salaries and buy extra resources. Not surprisingly, these former white-only schools have far superior facilities and quality of education.

School outcomes tell the story of South Africa’s educational inequalities. In 2009 just over half of black students passed the high school final exam, compared with 99 percent of whites. Of the South African population over 20 years old, 65 percent of those who are white and only 14 percent of those who are black have a high school degree or higher. The disparities remain at the university level. Although black Africans account for 80 percent of the whole South African population, they make up less than half of all university students. Less than one in 20 black South Africans ends up with a degree, compared with almost half of all whites.

Using The QFT To Drive Inquiry In Project-Based Learning

Project-based learning (PBL) is a method teachers employ that requires students to integrate and synthesize skills from different subjects to solve complex, real-world problems. It focuses on active learning through the completion of hands-on projects rather than passive absorption of information. PBL is not a new technique and it can certainly be argued that this process has been the foundation of all learning since the earliest times. However, in our digital age the PBL method can be enhanced remarkably when combined with the use of digital portfolios or ePortfolios as they are more commonly called. Students and teachers can now use ePortfolios to collaborate on projects in real-time and develop perceptive skills while obtaining feedback from their classmates and teachers on their work. ePportfolios can be especially useful in group projects as they facilitate student collaboration. PBL through ePortfolios provides distinct advantages for students:

Students are encouraged to synthesize knowledge and think, instead of just memorize;
Students are given a great collaborative tool for solving problems;
New material can be introduced to students in different ways, including multimedia.
Students can be given continual feedback and assessment
Education has too often focused on rote memorization rather than actual synthesis of knowledge with the result that many students cannot employ information in a creative manner, because they never learned it with problem solving in mind. Project-based learning provides students with a context for the information they learn; it places theory into a real-world context. For example, instead of requiring students to read a book on modern China, a teacher may assign a project. Students may have to give a series of presentations on Chinese art, modern political economy, and environmental challenges. These areas combine art, politics/history, and science into one theme. Such projects also force students to recognize information and distill it into a presentable format. Students can thus develop their reasoning skills and find creative solutions to questions that do not have a clear answer.

Project-based learning also requires that students engage in discourse and idea sharing with classmates. Collaboration becomes important in the working world, as concepts often need several levels of colleague verification and input before implementation. The same proves true for PBL. Several students with delegated tasks working in a group can use their collective knowledge to produce a more comprehensive product than one could alone. Constant reflection and adjustment of ideas and concepts allows students to engage the material at a deeper level; students help one another learn. Possibilities expand further when students use ePortfolios to connect and work on projects. They have many more opportunities to interact through the ePortfolio than they would by working on the project during or after school thus perpetuating the learning process.

Engaging student interest is perhaps the most compelling argument for the implementation of project-based learning. Lectures often leave students bored and without a deeper understanding of the material. In a PBL setting, teachers often give students only a basic introduction to the material. In this scenario students are required to make the transition from teacher-directed instruction to self-directed learning. The goal is for the students to immerse themselves in the learning process to the point that it does not feel tedious or like work. The project becomes more like play for them. Students who like school and learning will have a greater craving for knowledge and that process will transfer to a higher rate of learning. The theory behind project-based learning is that forced feeding of information does not yield optimal results. Learning should be an organic process that gives students the opportunity to discover knowledge for themselves. The first step in the process is for students to be engaged. They will simply perform at a higher level if they are truly interested in what they are doing.

Importance of Vocational Training for Career Development

Vocational education or training is effective way to enrich the practical skills of an individual to face career challenges easily. It helps to carry on in-depth study by providing valuable knowledge in a particular sphere. There is no age boundary in acquiring this type of knowledge and it is the best way to prepare to get the desired job for a successful career. It has now become an essential tool to educate the employees for better performance to get profitable outcomes.

This type of courses is much different from the traditional way of learning as it does not follow the plain teaching format. Vocation training is designed in way to prepare and groom learners to get their desired job for career development. Choosing the right course curriculum is important to get the right career guide.

Previously it was of form of training the working class to educate them with proper techniques but now it has become important for employees in every sector. As job market are becoming more and more challenging day by day it important to acquire this type of training with proper practical exposure for job security. In certain cases the completion of this sort of course provides learner with a license to allow them to start working immediately. It is the most effective way to gain the right career resources in exchange of minimum amount which cost much less than the forms of learning.

Availability of Vocation Training or Education

Previously there were limited courses offered on particular subjects but now there are better options and opportunities to gain vocational training. They have more flexible form of learning which are often known as trade schools. This types of courses are mostly certified or diploma courses. They are often provided by various community colleges with proper learning infrastructure. Some organizations also use online education system to help students learn at their own convenience.

Financial aids for this sort of courses are also readily available from various public and private sectors. Government funding is also offered to students of vocational training in certain countries. The most demanding job sorts for vocational training are automobiles, hotel management, mechanics, information technology, fashion etc. This is a sure way to add a new dimension to the career for a successful future.

How to Advance Your Career Even If You Don’t Have a Job

Many people think they need a job to make progress in their career. You don’t need a job to make progress. Doing things that create forward momentum may create the work you need over time. So don’t wait to start doing these career advancing moves.

1. Promote your progress. Let those with the authority to spend money and make decisions know the advances you are making in your learning, networks, and knowledge of their industry.

2. Do your homework. Research the leading organizations and individuals in your field. Learn what they are doing to stay ahead.

3. Have your finger on the pulse. Know what the emerging issues and trends are within your industry.

4. Put your hand up. Can you volunteer within your industry association or on the board of an organization with a cause you are passionate about? You will be expanding your network and skills.

5. Chart a career path for your career progress. What skills do you need as you round out your experience and move forward on your career path? How can you learn the skills you will require?

Can you learn:

by taking a course?
in a self-directed way?
by writing an article and posting it?
through volunteering?
through an expert or mentor?

6. Broaden your network in your field. Can you attend industry events with a goal of meeting 3 new people at each event? Can you let your current network know that you want to expand your network? Are there people you should get in front of?

7. Find a mentor (or two). Spend time with people in your field who are further along the career path or considered to be experts in your industry.

8. Polish your online profiles. Keep the information current on these public profiles, so that your contacts can be up to date on your progress.

9. Push your passion forward. Advance your knowledge and abilities in areas of your career where you are truly motivated. This will be fun and rewarding as the learning and knowledge add to your skill sets.

10. Risk yourself. Put more skin in the game by putting yourself out more. You could organize an event, write an article or offer to do a talk. Your efforts and learning can open up new people, opportunities, and energy to you.

These actions will advance your process, add to your knowledge base and network. Even if you don’t have work, setting goals and carrying out some of these actions will move you closer to getting work that you would enjoy and shine at.

Best Education Colleges and universities in abroad

For all students, college may be the immediate target after senior school. The benefit of going abroad, of perhaps not joining an area community college, can be quite a decision. There are lots of good reasons for this — while universities and schools provide a lot of exactly the same development for first year students, there’s frequently more recognized status and cachet in going straight to college. As well, the opportunity to be away from home, significantly from the immediate guidance of parents and the tormenting of younger siblings, could be a strong.

Apart from the exact distance factor, developed by choosing a college not close to home you also need to see other associative attributes of abroad education as well.

  1. For better assistance it would be better if you make a thorough market research on all available options before finalising any choice on university or college.
  2. Always prepare your check list like what attributes you are looking for in university or college abroad.
  3. Beside the quality of education you also need to search transportation and accommodation facilities that they are providing.

Locating best education colleges and universities is not a big task provided that are aware about the attributes that you are searching in your college and university.

Chicago Schools with Mostly Low-Income Students See Inequitable Funding Standards

Most parents assume that their children are getting an equitable education, regardless of where they attend school or in what district. However, Chicago may differ in educational opportunities, depending upon several factors — the most prominent being the percentage of low-income students and the quality of property values within the different districts. With many of the schools providing education to low-income students, these factors impact the quality of education your children may receive.

Let’s look at schools in Chicago General George Patton School District 133. Its low-income students comprise 97 percent of the overall students educated within the district. The state standard per student funding is $8,786. Patton receives $10,144 per student, 15 percent above the standard. Sounds good? It’s not.

Low-income schools must provide for the special needs of the low-income students, such as extra tutoring programs, remedial programs, preschool, and free lunches. Once the normal costs of special education and transportation are added in, there is little left of the school’s budget for typical needs, let alone educational enhancements. Some of the Patton students cannot even take textbooks home to study, because there are not enough for each student.

Low-income schools must provide such services to ensure the children living in poor families have the same education advantages as their other children. With no formal education before kindergarten, they need the extra schooling that many times must continue throughout elementary school.

Now let’s compare Patton to Northbrook School District 27 (not in the Chicago area). It has a school budget of $20 million per year for 1,310 students — $15,308 per student. It has only 0.6 percent low-income students and a sky-high property tax base from which to draw funds — according to the Northern Multiple Listing Service, the average home in this school district carries more than $2 million in value.

Northbrook spends very little on low-income student services. They can afford well-educated teachers. Students have access to wireless laptops starting in fourth grade. They provide continual teacher professional development and administration support. Student has daily physical education classes, art and music twice a week, and daily interaction with technology — they have over 700 computers and a seven-person technology staff. Their gifted program meets several times a week for children in kindergarten through third grade, and daily for as long as three periods for fourth graders. They provide after school activities, such as the broadcast club, chess club and competitive sports.

The low-income Chicago schools cannot compete with wealthier districts, and the children are not as prepared for college or post-graduate careers. Chicago schools education advocates are concerned with the wide variation in school district per student funding amounts across the state, which ranges from $4,437 to $23,798 per student. They believe it is unfair that poor Chicago schools have to choose between the basic needs of children in poorer families and education enhancements that are demanded by parents in wealthier Chicago schools.

Some of the contributing factors for inequalities in Chicago schools are:

o Chicago schools have to pay teachers more than rural schools, since their cost of living is higher in Chicago; but much less than wealthier schools — many teachers do not have a college major or minor within the subjects they teach (mathematics, for instance),

o Most Chicago schools spend more on bilingual education to serve the growing immigrant populations,

o Low-income Chicago schools have higher costs for administration and support services to address the students’ attendance, emotional and academic issues, and

o Low-income Chicago schools receive most of their funding from state and federal government grants; whereas, wealthier school districts receive the bulk of their funding locally, most of which is from property taxes.

Leave Decisions About Schools To Educators, Not Politicians

Education, which was at one time considered a local matter of the state, has been given a complete makeover in the last 30 years or so. It can be said that education today has become a national political football, where proposals come and hit it from every angle and in the end, there is nothing that seems to have been fixed. In other words, the last few years have seen the death of the great American schooling system with increased politics and less of real decision making by industry experts.

The prevailing schooling system in America needs to be addressed from several angles which include vouchers, curriculum reform, charter schools, standardized testing, and teacher accountability. These days, more importance is given to testing and the choices of educational institutes are so many, that in this crowd real education is getting undermined. In all these years, fewer efforts have been exerted in promoting a sound educational curriculum in the voucher schools and so, those who attended them, gained nothing much. The decisions in the educational system should be made by the educators and not intellectuals from the political congress.

The prevailing education system

Schools in America these days have started to function like businesses as organizations are promoting and marketing them. Public education instead, needs to be preserved and not marketed like any product. After all, it is the public education which forms the root of democracy and citizenship and grooms the young minds to live the American life.

The effect of grant programs

The top ‘philanthrocapitalists’ like Broad, Walton and Gates foundations regard their grants as investments which have the capability to pull up measurable results. Though they give training on teachers’ accountability, they are hardly scrutinized themselves thanks to their powerful interlocking grants which keeps the critics at bay. The federal government would soon swipe out the basic principles of public schooling system if it continues with its competitive grant programs. In the coming months, thousands of public school teachers will be shown the door with the falling tax revenue and increasing unemployment.

The last word

Even with this prevailing scenario, it’s not too late to change the present system of public education in America. President Barack Obama and David Axelrod should look into the situation and bring out the necessary changes and make sure that the education system is handed out to the educationalists, to whom, the matter belongs. It’s definitely not a matter of politics.